• Your PAP Came Back Abnormal. Here’s What You Need to Know!

    As a general rule, not hearing from your doctor after a medical test is usually a good sign. No news is good news, right? So, it’s definitely nerve wracking when your OB-GYN’s office calls to tell you that your PAP smear was abnormal.

    Now, there’s no need to start writing a will and preparing for the worst just yet. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, around 3 million women will receive unclear or abnormal PAP results this year, but only 10,000 of those cases will actually indicate cervical cancer. So before panic sets in, here are some things you should know about abnormal PAP smears and what you need to do next.

    “Abnormal” simply means change

    When a PAP smear comes back abnormal, it simply means that cell changes were found on your cervix. However, those changes do not necessarily point to cancer. The cells are “abnormal” because they are not dying at the end of their usual life span or are dividing unusually.

    Potential causes of abnormal cervical cells

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Most abnormal PAP results are caused by the sexually transmitted infection (STI) known as HPV. This infection is so common that almost every sexually active human will get at least one strain of it. In most cases, your body will clear an HPV infection on its own within 2 years. The strains to watch out for are 16 and 18. It generally takes 10-15 years for your cells to go from abnormal to cancerous because of HPV.

    Other sexually transmitted infections

    Some STIs like chlamydia and gonorrhea can cause inflammation in your cervical cells, which makes them look abnormal. Fortunately, these STIs are treatable with antibiotics, and you can protect yourself from contracting them in the first place by wearing condoms during sex.

    Vaginal inflammation

    When the delicate pH balance of the vagina is out of whack, you can develop yeast infections or bacterial vaginosis. These vaginal inflammations weaken your natural defenses and allow bacteria to grow in much higher amounts. Over-the-counter creams, home remedies, or anti-biotics will get you back on track.

    Pregnancy, menopause, or smoking can also have an effect on cervical cells.

    What now?

    Your doctor will most likely recommend that you come back for a follow-up appointment to determine the cause of the cell changes. During your appointment, the gynecologist will perform a colposcopy by taking a closer look at your vagina through a specialized magnifying glass. They may also take a biopsy and send the sample off to a lab.

    How to get rid of precancerous cells

    If your abnormal cells turn out to be precancerous, there are several things your doctor can do to get rid of them once and for all.

    • Laser ablation – burn the cells with a laser

    • Cryotherapy – freeze the cells with a cold probe

    • Diathermy – uses electric current to snip away abnormal cervical tissue

    • Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) – similar to diathermy

    • Cone biopsy – surgically remove a cone-shaped area of your cervix

    • Hysterectomy – remove your uterus entirely

    Whether you are due for a PAP smear or you want to find out more information about what your abnormal Pap smear results mean for our future, contact the caring and compassionate doctors at Women’s Healthcare Associates today!

  • If You Struggle with Fertility, Here are Your Options

    You have dreamed about becoming a mom for as long as you can remember, and now that you are all ready to go, things are just not happening the way you expected. Why is it so easy for everyone else around you? All you want to do is start a family naturally, and yet the long months have passed without success.

    If you are struggling with fertility, you are definitely not alone. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 12% of women have difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term. Fortunately, more than half of couples experiencing fertility issues will conceive after treatment, so do not give up hope! Here are some of the most common things you can do or options you can try to help increase your chances of conception.

    Give your fertility a boost

    Optimizing your health and trying a few low-tech methods for boosting your fertility is a great place to start. Here are some ideas:

    • Eat healthy

    • Stop smoking

    • Maintain a healthy weight

    • Limit alcohol use

    • Reduce stress levels

    • Get acupuncture

    • Be intimate with your partner 3 to 4 days prior to ovulation and up to 24 hours after ovulation

    • Use an ovulation predictor kit

    Fertility drugs

    Whether injected or taken in pill form, fertility drugs release hormones that induce ovulation to boost egg production and make the uterus more receptive to embryo implantation. This is a convenient, low-cost option for women who don’t ovulate regularly or whose partners have low sperm quality. Fertility drugs have a success rate of 40%-45% of women who ovulate as a result of taking pills and as much as 50% of women who ovulate as a result of injections.


    If you have a genetic defect, blocked fallopian tubes, fibroids, endometriosis, or PCOS, surgery may be a great option. Success rates vary. For example, women with endometriosis have a 40% chance of conceiving after laparoscopic surgery while 21%-59% of women conceive after their fallopian tubes are opened. Costs also vary depending on the procedure and your insurance coverage.

    Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    Using a thin, flexible catheter, the doctor directly inserts specially prepared sperm into the uterus. Fertility drugs may be used prior to insemination to help increase the chances of fertilization. The chances of conception occurring on the first cycle are 15%-20%, but there is a 60%-70% chance of conception after 6 cycles.

    In vitro fertilization

    After removing eggs from your ovaries, a doctor will combine them with sperm from your partner in a laboratory. If fertilization is successful, the resulting embryos will then be implanted in your uterus. Fertility drugs are usually taken ahead of time to increase the chances of implantation. IVF can be expensive, but the success rate for women 34 and under is 40%.

    If you are interested in finding out more information about your fertility options, please contact the excellent team at Women’s Healthcare Associates . We have been helping couples conceive for over 25 years, and we are excited to help you on your journey towards parenthood.